Glossary beginning with C

C. eleganssearch for term
Caenorhabditis elegans (Caeno, recent; rhabditis, rod; elegans, nice), is a free-living, non-parasitic soil nematode that can be safely used in the laboratory and is common around the world. (Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J., Riddle, D.L., Priess, J.F. (Ed.). (1997). C. elegans II. New York, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p. 1)
cell divisionsearch for term
Separation of a cell into two daughter cells. In higher eukaryotes, it involves division of the nucleus (mitosis) and of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis); mitosis is often used to refer to both nuclear and cytoplasmic division.
cell lineagesearch for term
A pedigree of cells related through division that enable one to trace a cell's predecessors and progeny.
cell polaritysearch for term
The uneven distribution of functional or structural components in a cell along an axis.
chromosomesearch for term
In eukaryotes, the structural unit of the genetic material consisting of a single, linear double-stranded DNA molecule and associated proteins wrapped into a high order structure. During mitosis, chromosomes condense into compact structures visible in the light microscope. In prokaryotes, a single circular double-stranded DNA molecule constitutes the bulk of the genetic material. Synonyms: chromosomes
codonsearch for term
A triplet of nucleotides that corresponds to an amino acid or a termination signal. (Genes V, p.1238)
cytoskeletonsearch for term
System of protein polymers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that provide structural integrity and the capacity for directed movement. The most abundant components are actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.